When a company, whether to make money or non-profit, grows or strategizes expansion, it always opens additional locations. Banks, coffee houses, supermarkets, shops, restaurants, salons, airlines, as well as government offices may be employed in several location, domestic or foreign, to focus on the requirements of their clients or clientele.
Such additional locations either can be by means of a company or perhaps a branch.
Branch or Agency?
Based on its objectives, the enterprise may adopt the type of whether branch or perhaps an agency. Both are members of a main organization even though they conduct operations from their house office, they aren’t another legal entity in the latter.
The important thing difference backward and forward is based on their amount of autonomy or independence. For example, a sales agency typically doesn’t stock inventory, only displays merchandise, takes orders and arranges for receiving the merchandise. Quite simply, the company just functions with respect to the house office (H.O.), using the latter handling another facets of operations for example acquisition of merchandise, advertising, and granting of credit.
The branch, however, includes a better autonomy and therefore operates more individually of the house office compared to agency, mainly within the following aspects:
Provision of the wider selection of services to customers or clientele Exercise of greater management decision-making Handling more facets of business operations, for example stocking of inventory, filling of customers' orders, credit and collection Upkeep of another accounting system
Separate Branch Accounting System
Reflecting this better autonomy, the branch typically maintains its very own separate accounting system, as the agency doesn’t. Actually, it’s the office at home which records all agency transactions within the former’s accounting system.
Such upkeep of separate accounting records through the branch and also the office at home facilitates more efficient control of operations and enables top management to higher assess branch performance making proper business decisions for the organization.
Comprising Branch Operations
The accounting transactions recorded through the branch are usually from the following types:
Exterior transactions or transactions with parties exterior to the organization like a legal entity (e.g. customers, suppliers, creditors, power companies) Internal transactions inside the branch along with other branches of the organization with office at home
It through the branch of their exterior transactions and individuals which naturally affect just the branch (i.e. internal transactions inside the branch) is performed while using regular accounts and journal records. However, in recording the branch’s transactions using the H.O., certain intra-balances must be produced and used. Likewise, inter-branch transactions or transactions from the branch with another branch are often coursed or removed with the H.O. using intra-balances.
In the finish from the accounting period, the branch prepares its very own fiscal reports in line with the balances of their accounts, only for internal reporting purposes. These branch fiscal reports still need to be coupled with individuals from the H.O. for exterior reporting purposes, in a way the resulting reports reflect the personal finances and outcomes of operations of the organization like a single entity.
During the time of the establishment from the branch, the next typical intra-balances are produced within the books of accounts or records from the branch and residential office:
Branch Books of Accounts "Office At Home" account Office At Home Books of Accounts "Purchase of Branch" account (one take into account each branch)
The intra-balances “Office At Home” and “Purchase of Branch” are reciprocal accounts, meaning they’re inversely associated with or opposite one another. The “Office At Home” account includes a normal credit balance, as the “Purchase of Branch” account includes a normal debit balance. Whatever approved transaction is recorded in a single account ought to be recorded within the other account. Provided all transactions are recorded, both accounts should have a similar or equal balance.
The “Office At Home” account seems within the equity portion of the branch balance sheet, as the “Purchase of Branch” account is proven within the asset portion of the H.O. balance sheet. However, within the preparation from the fiscal reports of the organization in general, these intra-balances are eliminated given that they have to do with internal activities that do not concern the exterior people that use the reports.
Common Intra-company Transactions
Listed here are the most typical transactions between your branch and H.O. that are recorded by, while using intra-balances pointed out above:
Change in assets from H.O. towards the branch and the other way around (e.g. cash, fixed assets, merchandise inventory) Recognition of branch earnings or loss (after closing of revenue and expense accounts through the branch to the "Earnings Summary" account) Recording of expenses suffered by the branch but billed to and compensated through the H.O. (e.g. acquisition of office supplies online through the H.O. for that branch) Allocation of expenses through the H.O. that are chargeable towards the branch (e.g. branch's share of the price of advertising carried out by H.O. for the organization) Inter-branch transactions (e.g. personal accounts of branch employees for collection, transfers of fixed assets, approved expenses suffered by a branch worker in another branch)
Reconciliation of Purchase of Branch and residential Office Accounts
As discussed above, the balances from the “Office At Home” and “Purchase of Branch” accounts ought to be equal or even the same. The truth is, however, due to timing variations and recording errors, both of these accounts rarely balance. There’s therefore a necessity to periodically make a reconciliation of the accounts to look for the reconciling products and record the required adjustments through appropriate journal records either in or each of the books from the branch and H.O.
Branch Accounting and Company Growth
New branches not just indicate that there’s company growth, but could also propel further growth. With this growth to become sustained, the data supplied by the branch’s accounting system should be complete, accurate and timely to ensure that top management can make a good business decisions in the proper time. In the end, “Many would repeat the information supplied by an entity’s accounting system is an essential single resource for financial decision makers” (Chalmers, Keryn, et al. “Accounting for action.” Concepts of monetary Accounting. second erectile dysfunction. Queensland: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Limited., 2010. 5. Print).
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